It later came up in when Professor of psychiatry Alfred Hoch M. Heritage 'Through interviewing Evelyn Haddrell, I was able to open up the past and join her in her youth. To be in the presence of the past, the value is direct, one relives the past with the interviewee and shares their experiences. This value is perhaps non-quantifiable, as the value is human and based on personal feelings and a connection between human beings, which cannot be substituted or replicated This research grew from my awareness of local heritage. Although moving images and photography serve as significant historical sources, photography has a more powerful effect.
Andrew Lipscombe - Did David Low's cartoons reflect public opinion in Britain in the interwar period? Due to the distortion of reality by these shots and their role in the formation of opinion the film can be interpreted to be one of propaganda. This system allowed students to work together in groups and to produce their work in any format.
Click here for the official full guidelines opens in new window. Students at the IST were asked to produce a website so as to make their work accessible to a wider audience. IB History Home. This page is host to History Internal assessments completed at the IST from the first examination year of through to Alex Newton - What were the causes of the Boston Massacre ?
Emma Wilcock - The role of women living in post-war Britain. The influence of the author is inescapable in any account being told: indeed, if we follow the thrust of post-modern analysis then there is very little difference between history and literature'. Julien Bell - Was the Resistance French? A case study of Toulouse Marie Behrens - Was Hitler's 'euthanasia' policy distinctively Nazi? Sophie Ledger - Analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of oral history: Evelyn Haddrell Grandmother. Erik Rademaker - The historical utility of photography: A case study of Vietnam.
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Still images have a far greater impact on people because they can study one moment in time for length of time John Rae: Arctic explorer and distant relative - Charlotte. Paganism and the Medieval Church - Naamah. Mozart and the Amadeus Myth - Bryana.
No one else would do such a good job. Recent remarks by W.
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Norton staff indicate that as the text prepares for its ninth edition in , its market share remains proportionally high. Its presentation and grouping of musical styles and history organized countless music history courses. What is most remarkable about this state of affairs is that over the same period, a sister discipline in music scholarship developed a robust pedagogical literature.
Articles about teaching aural skills and written music theory appeared early in College Music Symposium and even in music education journals such as the first issue of Journal of Research in Music Education in the s. This comparatively early start in music theory pedagogy led to the establishment in of the Gail Boyd de Stwolinski Center for Music Theory Pedagogy at the University of Oklahoma, an institute that created the Journal of Music Theory Pedagogy two years later. As a result of this climate, music theory pedagogy remains a dynamic field with numerous resources for young teachers and scholars and a plethora of textbooks vying for adoption.
The climate for music history pedagogy has not been as hospitable over the half century since Grout first published A History of Western Music. But not until did music history pedagogy research seem to reach critical mass. Each of these events approached the growth of music history pedagogy from different angles.
In his preface to Vitalizing Music History , James Briscoe sounded a slightly more pessimistic call while lauding the changes he saw afoot.
In a survey he conducted in , Briscoe discovered that only four out of fifty schools offering the Ph. However, Briscoe listed several facets of the notable work by the CMS, including yearly forums on pedagogy topics at CMS national meetings, two Institutes for Music History Pedagogy in and , and the collected essays in his own edited volume.
While these sessions did not feature formal research-based papers, they indicated the new attention given by the AMS to pedagogy.click
Peter Burkholder in an article for College Music Symposium. He picked that year as his cutoff in order to prove that there was a substantial amount of current work on the topic, enough to support a journal. The resulting list of sixty articles in the field including all articles from Teaching Music History and Vitalizing Music History Teaching , four books on higher education pedagogy, and eleven papers presented at the Teaching Music History Day certainly supports the need for a dedicated journal. It also reveals that scholars had begun to recognize and work on common themes in the development of coursework in undergraduate music history.
These themes appear in the scattering of key publications before , but by focusing on the scholarship of the previous decade, Balensuela explicated the themes that have, in many ways, defined the journal and the field. Balensuela was not the only scholar identifying the key themes in undergraduate music history pedagogy in With the preceding exploration of the overall environment in which undergraduate music history pedagogy has germinated over the past fifty years as a backdrop, I spend the rest of this article exploring the five areas of intense concentration and change revealed by my survey of the available literature.
One of the oldest and most contested topics in music history pedagogy remains the music that we teach and the content of our courses. Forty years later, little had changed as Peter Burkholder voiced a common cry among music history teachers: how do we teach music history when there is always more we want to put in, whether from history continuing its march or from the opening of new repertoires?
New fields continually open and introduce new repertoires that demand consideration. With the establishment of ethnomusicology in the United States, designers of undergraduate coursework finally began giving credence to the music of cultures outside the European sphere, music from India, West Africa, East Asia, and beyond. These traditions obviously impacted the development of Western European music and added deep undertones to student experiences of the repertoire. They also encouraged historical musicologists to look at European regions previously slighted, such as Spain, England, and Eastern Europe, and even regions directly impacted by European musical culture such as the United States and Latin America.
Other work invited previously underexplored repertoires within the Western canon to the table, including the music of women composers, the outlook of performers, and the contributions of African Americans. Response to this outpouring of new repertoires and content has been generally positive but extremely varied among pedagogy scholars.
Early discussions centered on how to add new repertoires without disrupting the old. Boomgaarden then outlined how he created a three-week unit that served as an introduction to non-Western music through various themes and issues: Week 1 covered the role of music in non-Western societies; Week 2 explored the makeup of non-Western music as an introduction to form and structure in Western music; and Week 3 completed the unit through a comparison of Western and non-Western music. Non-Western music is valued not for itself but for the ways in which it interfaces with Western music.
In his preface, Claude V. Other writers offered competing answers to the question of content in the s, and those answers pointed toward an integration that has informed the current conversation. James Hepokoski presciently observed that in order for musicologists to discover how the specialized their research can inform the general their undergraduate classes , they need to not present music history as something static but as something constantly shifting because of new discoveries, providing students a taste of the discipline.
He found that musicologists were not letting their work in the specialized inform their teaching of the general and so, following his own research, proposed that music history courses integrate cultivated and vernacular musics throughout history and in particular explore European and West African musical developments side by side. Doing so would provide students the foundational knowledge needed to understand American musical culture and therefore prepare them for success in their professional lives in the United States.
Integration at this level necessitates the kind of choices decried at the beginning of this section that some content is left behind as new content is added, but it came to underpin discussion in the early s. By that decade, it became a given that teachers wished to expand their repertoire horizons, but the methods by which they sailed to those new lands remained a subject of debate. Some scholars, like Art Samplaski, urged teachers to look at their content and divide it in new ways, finding large patterns that would allow them to move quickly through some material while going in depth into others.
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Others, like Mark Clague, argued that our best solution was to collaborate and borrow ideas from other closely related disciplines. The resulting courses used the tools of musicology and music theory to engage students in a detailed music history that explored the contexts and cultures as well as functions and structures of music.
This was a combine-and-conquer approach to questions of content in both music disciplines. Finally, several authors suggested reducing the music history survey to key compositions in each given musical historical period in order to forego the history of musical style in favor of a history of people making music. As Burkholder outlined, teachers can either keep their current survey courses while giving up the need to cover each historical period in detail or create new courses that allow for in-depth study of a given repertoire. This was a reorientation-of-the-goals methodology that sidestepped questions of content to deal with questions of outcomes.
Other innovative solutions continue to present themselves, each with its merits and detractors. He carefully outlined his plan in some detail and stated his reasons for the change, prompting a reply from another teacher not even four hours later. In essence, teaching is something done to the student who passively sits and receives it. Teaching is engaging students, engineering an environment in which they learn. Scholar of instructional development L. Dee Fink commented on this shift by first surveying the concerns that students, educators, and the public share about the effectiveness of a college education when students, after four years of college, cannot read an essay and identify its implications and assumptions, much less relate its themes to their own lives.
Those same students were also weak when it came to any task requiring them to establish a chronology of historical events or find causal relationships among events, two skills close to the heart of music history pedagogy. All teachers want their students to have significant learning experiences, whether they are prompted by lecture, discussion, projects, or any other classroom activity, and, as a result, music history pedagogy over the past two decades has ridden the tide of research into the interaction between teaching and learning.
Although the term first appeared in the s, Charles Bonwell and James Eison codified it with their report Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom , which concluded that active learning places less emphasis on transmitting information and more on developing skills, increasing motivation, providing quick feedback to students, and involving them in higher level thinking. The first area scholars explored in engaging students was writing in the music history classroom.
Olaf College, described a new series of writing projects where students examined a piece of music and researched the historical and cultural context in which it was written. They then wrote a fictional account of an early performance of the work based on their research and presented it to the class in the form of a letter, a journal, or any other type of writing relevant to the period. More recently, scholars have explicitly defined active learning as a goal of writing in the classroom and have explored ways to accomplish the task beyond familiar exercises such as journaling, five- or one-minute papers, and summary writings at the end of class.
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Many have pointed to the online environment as an ideal setting for generating student interactivity and achieving engagement through writing. Nancy Rachel November described a writing project in which students worked in groups to compile and annotate bibliographies on seminal recordings of works in the Western canon. They then participated in small-group online discussions about their recordings before posting reflections on those discussions to a larger online group.
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Only after writing these low-stakes assignments did students write individual papers. Although the assignment can change every year the next year November had the students write about E. Listening is one of the most characteristic activities in the music history classroom and, as many have pointed out, is a natural fit for active learning. By factoring in that many teachers state that developing listening skills in their students is a primary goal of their class, it becomes apparent why much of the literature addresses this topic.
While it is easy to simply turn on a recording and expect students to become engaged, scholars are increasingly discovering strategies from other disciplines that aid in developing active, rather than passive, listening. Martha Snead Holloway drew from education, music education, and psychology literature to describe the benefits and tactics of cooperative listening. In groups, students worked through directed listening forms that provided subjective and objective questions on a given piece, asked for identification of musical elements, and included time for reflection on student learning.
Other scholars have examined individual listening activities in the classroom. Melanie Lowe argued that having students perform tasks while listening is the most effective means to create active engagement.